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Library Home » Citing Sources » Turabian Citation Style Examples

Turabian Citation Style Examples

(Note)

[full-text]Online Sources [books]"Traditional" Sources
Online Reference Databases
Examples include:
     Daily Life through History      CountryWatch
     Credo Reference
     Oxford Music Online
     Opposing Viewpoints

From Library Databases:
     Journal Articles
     Magazine Articles
     Newspaper Articles
     News Wires
     TV Show Transcripts
     Court Cases
     Public Laws
     Government Documents
     Online Books from a  
        Library or Bookseller

From the Free Web
     Government Documents
     Web Pages
     Journal Articles
     Magazine Articles
     Newspaper Articles
     Free Online Books
     Blog Entry or Comment
     Electronic Mailing Lists


Interviews/Personal Communication
Examples include:
     Interviews published in books
          journals, magazines and
          newspapers
     Interviews that have been           recorded and broadcast
     E-mails
     Text Messages
     Letters

Print Sources:
     Books
     Chapter in a Book

     Government Documents
     Journal Articles
     Lecture or Paper Presented
         at a Meeting/Conference
     Magazine Articles
     Newspaper Articles
     Proceedings



Additional Resources:
     Introduction to Basic Legal
          Citation

          (Bluebook Examples)
     No Author/Multiple Authors
     Notes/Bib. Sample Paper
     Turabian Quick Guide




Please note:

This page follows the citation style of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

When inserting numbers for endnotes or footnotes in the text of a paper, use superscript numbers. When typing footnotes or endnotes, use normal size font (as shown in the examples below on this page).

Items in each entry (e.g., author, title, etc.) are color-coded to match the elements needed in each citation.  If the work cited does not include one of the elements (e.g., there is no author listed), leave it out.

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Entry from a Database of Reference Materials
Examples of this type of database include: Daily Life through History,CountryWatch. Credo Reference, Oxford Music Online, Opposing Viewpoints (Viewpoints) etc.
Note Elements:
Note number. Author(s) or Editor of Work, "Title of Work," in Title of Multiauthor Work, ed. Name of Editor if given (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of publication), page number if pdf, Persistent URL or DOI (accessed date of access).
 
Note Examples:
1. Jing Luo, "Jews in China," in Daily Life Online: A Suite of Social History Products (Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2010), http://dailylife2.abc-clio.com/ (accessed April 15, 2010).
2. Denise Youngblood Coleman, "Country Review: Haiti: Political Conditions" in CountryWatch (Houston, TX: CountryWatch Publications, 2011), http://www.countrywatch.com
/cw_topic.aspx?type=text&vcountry=73&topic=POPCO (accessed April 15, 2010).
3. Geoffrey Rothwell, "Nuclear Power Economics," in Encyclopeida of Energy (Oxford: Elsevier Science & Technology, 2004), http://www.credoreference.com/entry/estenergy
/nuclear_power_economics (accessed April 15, 2010).
4. Cliff Eisen et al., "Mozart (1) Leopold Mozart," in Grove Music Online (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music
/40258pg1#S40258.1 (accessed April 15, 2010).
5. Dieter Bednarz, Erich Follath, and Holger Stark, "Intelligence Information Strongly Suggest that Iran's Nuclear Motives are Not Peaceful," Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context, ed. Debra A. Miller (Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011), http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/ViewpointsDetailsPage
/ViewpointsDetailsWindow? displayGroupName= Viewpoints&prodId=OVIC&action=
e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CEJ3010739212&mode=
view&userGroupName=nwmosu_owens&jsid=29de16bff8482f90491602d00fbe669a (accessed April 15, 2010).
 
Bibliography Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. "Title of Work." In Title of Multiauthor Work, edited by Name of Editor if given, page numbers of work if pdf. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of publication. Persistent URL (accessed date if access).
 
Bibliography Examples:
Bednarz, Dieter, Erich Follath, and Holger Stark. "Intelligence Information Strongly Suggests that Iran's Nuclear Motives are Not Peaceful." In Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context, ed. by Debra A. Miller.Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011. http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/ViewpointsDetailsPage
/ViewpointsDetailsWindow? displayGroupName= Viewpoints&prodId=OVIC&action=
e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CEJ3010739212&mode=
view&userGroupName=nwmosu_owens&jsid=29de16bff8482f90491602d00fbe669a (accessed April 13, 2011).

Eisen, Cliff et al. "Mozart (1) Leopold Mozart." In Grove Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/
40258pg1#S40258.1 (accessed April 13, 2011).
Luo, Jing. "Jews in China." In Daily Life Online: A Suite of Social History Products. Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing, 2010.http://dailylife2.abc-clio.com/(accessed April 13, 2011).
Rothwell, Geoffrey. "Nuclear Power Economics." In Encyclopedia of Energy. Oxford: Elsevier Science & Technology, 2004.http://www.credoreference.com/entry/estenergy/nuclear_power_economics (accessed April 13, 2011).
Youngblood-Coleman, Denise. "Country Review: Haiti: Political Conditions." In CountryWatch.Houston, TX:  CountryWatch Publications, 2011. http://www.countrywatch.com
/cw_topic.aspx?type=text&vcountry=73&topic=POPCO (accessed April 13, 2011).

 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(author date)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(Luo 2010)
(Youngblood-Coleman 2011)
(Rothwell 2004)
(Eisen et al. 2001)
(Bednarz, Follath, and Stark 2011)
 
Reference List Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. Year of publication. "Title of work." In Title of Multiauthor Work, edited by Name of Editor if given, page numbers of work if pdf. Place of Publication: Publisher. Persistent URL (accessed date of access).
 
Reference List Examples:
Bednarz, Dieter, Erich Follath, and Holger Stark. 2011."Intelligence information strongly suggest that Iran's nuclear motives are not peaceful." In Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context, ed. by Debra A. Miller.Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011. http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/ViewpointsDetailsPage/ ViewpointsDetailsWindow?
displayGroupName=Viewpoints&prodId=OVIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=
&documentId=GALE%7CEJ3010739212&mode=view&userGroupName=
nwmosu_owens&jsid=29de16bff8482f90491602d00fbe669a (accessed April 13, 2011).

Eisen, Cliff et al. 2011. "Mozart (1) Leopold Mozart." In Grove Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press.http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/
40258pg1#S40258.1 (accessed April 13, 2011).
Luo, Jing. 2010. "Jews in China." In Daily Life Online: A Suite of Social History Products. Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing.http://dailylife2.abc-clio.com/ (accessed April 13, 2011).
Rothwell, Geoffrey. 2004. "Nuclear power economics." In Encyclopedia of Energy. Oxford: Elesevier Science & Technology.http://www.credoreference.com/entry/estenergy
/nuclear_power_economics (accessed April 13, 2011).

Youngblood-Coleman, Denise. 2011."Country review: Haiti: Poitical conditions." In CountryWatch Publications. Houston TX: CountryWatch Publications. http://www.countrywatch.com
/cw_topic.aspx?type=text&vcountry=73&topic=POPCO (accessed April 13, 2011).

 
For further help citing works from a database contributions to a multiauthor book), consult sections 17.1.8 and 19.1.9 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Full Text Journal Articles from a Database
Note: Omit initial articles from titles of journals. Example: Omit The from The American Historical Review so that it is American Historical Review.
Note Elements:
Note number. Author(s) or Editor, "Title of Article," Title of Periodical volume number, issue number (Date of publication): page number(s) listed for pdf files or under a descriptive heading if no page numbers, Persistent/stable URL or DOI (accessed date of access).
 
Note Example:
1. Wendy Kurant, "The Power of Love: The Education of a Domestic Woman in Mary Boykin Chesnut's Two Years," Southern Literary Journal 34, no. 2 (2002): 16, http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp?http://search.ebscohost.com
/login.aspx?direct=true&db=afh&AN=6970237&site=ehost-live (accessed April 13, 2011).
2. Augusta C.del Zotto, "Weeping Women, Wringing Hands: How the Mainstream Media Stereotyped Women's Experiences in Kosovo," Journal of Gender Studies 11, no. 2 (July 2002):143,
doi:10.1080/09589230220139773 (accessed April 13, 2011).
3. Caprice L. Roberts, "Ratios, (Ir)rationality & Civil Rights Punitive Awards," Akron Law Review 39, no.1019 (2006): under "Text," http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IpChecking.asp
?http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic (accessed April 13, 2011).
4. Seth Koven and Sonya Michel, "Ratios, (Ir)rationality & Civil Rights Punitive Awards," American Historical Review 95, no.4 (October 1990):1079, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2163479 (accessed April 13, 2011).
Notes:
The season or month may be included with the year, but is not required.
There is not a space after doi:
LexisNexis does not have persistent URLs.
Bibliography Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. "Title of article." Title of Periodical volume number, issue number (Date of publication): inclusive page numbers of article if available. Persistent/stable URL or DOI (accessed date of access).
 
Bibliography Example:
del Zotto, Augusta C. "Weeping Women, Wringing Hands: How the Mainstream Media Stereotyped Women's Experiences in Kosovo." Journal of Gender Studies 11, no. 2 (July 2002): 141-150. doi:10.1080/09589230220139773 (accessed April 13, 2011).
Kovan, Seth and Sonya Michel. "Womanly Duties: Maternalist Politics and Origins of Welfare States in France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States." American Historical Review 95, no. 4 (October 1990): 1076-1108. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2163479 (accessed April 13, 2011).
Kurant, Wendy. "The Power of Love: The Education of a Domestic Woman in Mary Boykin Chesnut's Two Years." Southern Literary Journal 34, no. 2 (2002): 14-29. http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp? http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx
?direct=true&db=afh&AN=6970237&site=ehost-live
(accessed April 13, 2011).
Roberts, Caprice. L. "Ratios, (Ir)rationality & Civil Rights Punitive Awards." Akron Law Review 39, no.1019 (2006): under "Text." http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic (accessed April 13, 2011).
Notes:
The season or month may be included with the year, but is not required.
There is not a space after doi:
LexisNexis does not have persistent URLs.
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(author date, page number(s) listed for pdf files or under a descriptive heading if no page numbers)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(del Zotto 2002, 143)
(Kurant 2002, 16)
(Roberts 2006, under "Text")
(Koven and Michel 1990, 1079)
 
Reference List Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. Year of publication. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical volume number (issue number): inclusive page numbers if available. Persistent/stable URL, or DOI (accessed date of access).
 
Reference List Examples:
del Zotto, Augusta C. 2002. "Weeping women wringing  hands: How the mainstream media stereotyped  women's experiences in Kosovo" Journal of  Gender Studies 11 (2): 141-150. doi:10.1080/09589230220139773 (accessed April 13, 2011).
Koven, Seth and Sonya Michel. 1990. "Womanly duties: maternalist politics and origins of welfare states in France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States." American Historical Review 95 (4): 1076-1108. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2163479 (accessed April 13, 2011).
Kurant, Wendy. 2002. "The power of love: The education of a domestic woman in Mary Boykin Chesnut's  Two Years." Southern Literary Journal 34 (2): 14-29. http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp?http://search.ebscohost.com
/login.aspx?direct=true&db=afh&AN=6970237&site=ehost-live (accessed April 13, 2011).
Roberts, Caprice L. 2006."Ratios, (ir)rationality & civil rights punitive awards." Akron Law Review39, no.1019 (2006): under "Text." http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic (accessed April 13, 2011).
Note:
The season or month is usually not included.
There is not a space after doi:
LexisNexis does not have persistent URLs.
For further help citing online journal articles, consult sections 17.2 - 17.2.7 and 19.2 - 19.2.8 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Full Text Magazine Articles from a Database
Notes:
Because magazine articles are often broken up and span many pages, do not cite pages numbers in bibliographies and references. List page numbers in notes and parenthetical references only when a specific quotation is used.
Cite magazines by date only, even if they have a volume and issue.
Note Elements:
Note number. Author(s) or Editor, "Title of Article," Title of Periodical, Date of publication, page number(s) listed for pdf files or under a descriptive heading if no page numbers only if a specific quotation is used, Persistent/stable URL, (accessed date of access).
 
Note Example:
1. Patrick Marshall, "Cybersecurity: Are U.S. Military and Civilian Computer Systems Safe?" The CQ Researcher, February 26, 2010, 173, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/ getpdf.php ?file=cqr20100226C.pdf (accessed April 13, 2011).
2. Ronald C. White Jr. "War and the Will of God, " Christian History and Biography, Summer 2008, 21, http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp?http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx
?direct=true&db=ahl&AN=34265665&site=ehost-live (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
Bibliography Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Date of publication. Persistent/stable URL (accessed date of access).
 
Bibliography Example:
Marshall, Patrick."Cybersecurity: Are U.S. Military and Civilian Computer Systems Safe?"The CQ Researcher, February 26, 2010. http://library.cqpress.com
/cqresearcher/getpdf.php?file=cqr20100226C.pdf (accessed April 13, 2011).
White Jr., Ronald C. "War and the Will of God," Christian History and Biography, Summer 2008. http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp?http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx
?direct=true&db=ahl&AN=34265665&site=ehost-live (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(author date, page(s) for pdf only or under a descriptive heading if no page numbers if a specific quotation is used)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:

HTML article with no page numbers:
(Marshall 2010, under "Are we winning the war on cybercrime?")

PDF article with page numbers:
(Marshall 2010, 173)

(White 2008, 21)

 
Reference List Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. Year of publication. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical,  Month and day of publication.Persistent/stable URL (accessed date of access).
 
Reference List Examples:
Marshall, Patrick. 2010. "Cybersecurity: Are U.S. military and civilian computer systems safe?"
The CQ Researcher
,
February 26. http://library.cqpress.com
/cqresearcher/getpdf.php?file=cqr20100226C.pdf (accessed April 13, 2011).
White, Jr., Ronald C. 2008. "War and the will of God." Christian History and Biography, Summer.http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp?http://search.ebscohost.com
/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ahl&AN=34265665&site=ehost-live (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
For further help citing online magazine articles, consult sections 17.3 and 19.3 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Full Text Newspaper Articles from a Database
NOTES:  
Newspaper article citations are usually listed only in notes and not in bibliographies, but they are listed in both parenthetical citations and reference lists.
If a newspaper title does not include the name of the city or if a city is not well known, list the city in italics and add the state,if needed for clarification, in parentheses. Examples: News Tribune (Tacoma, WA) or Springfield (MO) Journal. Newspaper article titles may be capitalized in either sentence or headline style.
Note Elements:
Note Number. Author(s), "Title of article," Title of Newspaper, date of publication, Persistent/stable URL or name of database.
 
Note Example:
1. Gene Seymour, "As She Turns 90, Jazz Pianist Marian McPartland Still Knows the Score," Newsday (Melville NY), March 19, 2008, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
direct=true&db=nfh&AN= 2W62W62371753809&site=ehost-live&scope=site (accessed April 13, 2011).
2. Josh White, ""Military Honors for a Changing Front; New Rules Reflect Dangers of Iraq and Afghanistan," Washington Post, October 18, 2006, http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic (accessed April 13, 2011).
Note: LexisNexis does not have persistent URLs.
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(Author(s) or Title of newspaper if author is named in text of paper date of publication)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(Seymour March 19, 2008)
(White October 18, 2006)
 
Reference List Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. Year of publication. "Title of article." Title of Periodical,  Month and day of publication, inclusive page numbers of article if available.Persistent/stable URL (accessed date of access).
 
Reference List Examples:
Seymour, Gene. "As she turns 90, jazz pianist Marian McPartland still knows the score." Newsday (Melville NY), March 19, 2008. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
direct=true&db=nfh&AN= 2W62W62371753809&site=ehost-live&scope=site (accessed April 13, 2011).
Josh White. ""Military honors for a changing front; new rules reflect dangers of Iraq and Afghanistan." Washington Post, October 18, 2006. http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic (accessed April 13, 2011).
Note: LexisNexis does not have persistent URLs.
For further help citing newspaper articles, consult sections 17.4 - 17.4.2 and 19.4 - 19.4.2 of of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Full Text News Wires from a Database
Notes:
News service article citations are usually listed only in notes and not in the bibliography. They are listed in the parenthetical references and in the reference list.
The titles of news services are capitalized headline style, but not italicized when they are listed as an author.
Note Elements:
Note Number. Author(s), "Title of article," Title of News Service Provider, Date of Publication, Persistent/stable URL or name of database (accessed date of access).
 
Note Examples:
1. The Wistar Institute. "Landmark Study Opens Door to New Cancer, Aging Treatments: Wistar Institute Researchers Decipher Telomerase Structure," Ascribe Higher Education News Service, August 31, 2008, http://find.galegroup.com/itx/ infomark.do?contentSet= IAC-T004 &prodId= AONE&docId=A184279180& userGroupName=nwmosu_owens&version=
1.0&searchType=BasicSearchForm&source=gale (accessed April 13, 2011).
 2. Christopher Torchia and Matti Friedman. "US Plans Aid to Georgia as Russia Rolls into City," Associated Press Online, August 13, 2008, http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic (accessed April 13, 2011).
Note: LexisNexis does not have persistent URLs.
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(Author(s) or Title of Article if author is named in the text of paper date of publication)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
According to the Wistar Institute, in a news wire entitled "Landmark Study Opens Door to New Cancer, Aging Treatments...," recent findings related to treatments for cancer . . . (Ascribe Higher Education News Service, August 31, 2008).
In "US Plans Aid to Georgia as Russia Rolls into City," Christopher Torchia and Matti Friedman described U.S. aid that included a "military cargo plane loaded with supplies" for the country of Georgia at the same time that Russia was invading the country (Associated Press Online, August 13, 2008).
 
Reference List Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. Year of publication. "Title of article." Title of News Service Provider,  Month and day of publication, inclusive page numbers of article if available.Persistent/stable URL (accessed date of access)..
 
Reference List Examples:
Wistar Institute. "Landmark study opens door to new cancer, aging treatments." Ascribe Higher Education News Service, August 31, 2008. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
direct=true&db=nfh&AN= 2W62W62371753809&site=ehost-live&scope=site (accessed April 13, 2011).
Josh White. ""Military honors for a changing front; new rules reflect dangers of Iraq and Afghanistan." Washington Post, October 18, 2006. http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic (accessed April 13, 2011).
Note: LexisNexis does not have persistent URLs.
For further help citing newspaper articles, consult sections 17.4 - 17.4.2 and 19.4 - 19.4.2 of of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Full Text Television Show Transcripts from a Database
Notes:
Cite television broadcasts only in notes and parenthetical citations.
Note Elements:
Note Number. Title of Show, "Episode or Segment Title if applicable," Names of key performers (if important to your discussion), Name of broadcast venue, date of broadcast, original date of broadcast (if available), medium, persistent/stable URL or name of database (accessed date of access).
 
Note Examples:
 1. The O'Reilly Factor, "Factor TV Icon: Julie Newmar," Laura Ingraham and Bill O'Reilly, Fox News Network, May 19, 2008, transcript, LexisNexis Academic (accessed April 13, 2011).
Note: LexisNexis does not have persistent/stable URLs.
Parathetical Elements:
(Title of Show, "Episode or Segment Title if applicable," Names of key performers (if important to your discussion), Name of broadcast venue, date of broadcast, original date of broadcast (if available), medium, persistent/stable URL or name of database (accessed date of access))
 
Parathetical Examples:
In the transcript of the episode entitled "Factor TV Icon: Julie Newmar," which aired on Fox News Network (Ingraham and O'Reilly May 19, 2008), ...
OR
(The O'Reilly Factor, "Factor TV Icon: Julie Newmar," Laura Ingraham and Bill O'Reilly, Fox News Network, May 19, 2008, transcript, LexisNexis Academic (accessed April 13, 2011))
 
For further help citing newspaper articles, consult sections 17.8.3 and 19.8.3 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Full Text Court Cases from a Database
Note: Legal documents are usually cited only in notes, . CHECK WITH YOUR PROFESSOR to see if you should cite a legal document in the bibliography or reference list.
Note Elements:
Note number. Case Name, Volume of Reporter Abbreviated Name of Reporter beginning page number of case exact page number cited if appropriate (Abbreviated Name of Court Year of Decision), Persistent/Stable URL or name of database and any identification number provided by database.
 
Note Examples:
1. James Parson v. State of Alaska, Department of Revenue, Alaska Housing Finance Corporation, 189 P.3d 1032 (S.C. AK 2008), LexisNexis.
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
Because there is no reference list entry, the information about the case will be listed in the running text of the paper using sentence form and clauses. This format should only be used in papers in which only a handful of legal documents are cited. If more than a few legal documents are cited, supplement the author-date system with footnotes or endnotes. (In the example below, the colors follow those used in the note example above.) While the use of parentheses within parentheses may seem unusual, it is recommended in this case.
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
The decision in James Parson v. State of Alaska, Department of Revenue, Alaska Housing Finance Corporation (189 P.3d 1032 (S.C. AK 2008)) indicates that . . .
 
For further help citing court cases, consult sections 17.9.7 and 19.9.7 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Full Text United States Public Laws from a Database
Notes: Statutes are usually cited only in notes and not in bibliographies. They are cited in both parenthetical references and reference lists.
Note Elements:
Note number. Name of law, Public Law #, Congress, Session (Date), Persistent/Stable URL or Name of Database and any identification number provided by the database (accessed Date of access)
 
Note Examples:
 1. Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008, Public. Law 110-161, 110th Cong., 1st. Sess. (December 26, 2007) LexisNexis Academic (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(Name of law Date act passed if not included in title of act)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008)
 
Reference List Elements:
Title of law. Date. Public Law #. Congress, Session Date. Persistant/Stable URL or Name of Database and any identification number provided by the database (accessed Date of access).
 
Reference List Examples:
Consolidated appropriations act, 2008. 2008. Public. Law 110-161.110th Cong., 1st. Sess. (December 26, 2007) LexisNexis Academic (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
For further help citing public laws or statutes, consult sections 17.9.2 and 19.9.2 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Online and Print Government Documents
 
The 7th edition of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Research lists separate guidelines for citing:
  • congressional publications
  • presidential publications
  • publications of government departments and agencies
  • the United States Constitution
  • treaties
  • legal cases
  • state and local government documents
  • Canadian and British government documents
  • publications of international bodies
  • unpublished government documents
  • and online public documents
 
For help citing government documents, consult sections 17.9 - 17.9.13 and 19.9.13 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

and the The Bluebook.

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Web Pages
 
Note Elements:
Include as much of the following as can be determined:
Note number. Author/editor of content, "Title of Specific Web Page Used," Owner or Sponsor of the Site, URL (accessed Date of access).
 
Note Examples:
     1. Yehuda Ashlag, "There is None Else Beside Him," Bnei Baruch Kabbalah Education & Research Institute, http://www.kabbalah.info/engkab/shamati_eng/shamati1.htm
(accessed
April 13, 2011).
     2. Edward Lawton, "The Underground Railroad," Digital History, ttp://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=55 (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
Bibliography Elements:
Include as much of the following as can be determined:
Author/editor of content. "Title of Specific Web Page Used." Owner or Sponsor of the Site. URL (accessed Date of access).L.
 
Bibliography Examples:
Ashlag, Yehuda, "There is None Else Beside Him."Bnei Baruch Kabbalah Education & Research Institute. http://www.kabbalah.info/engkab/shamati_eng/shamati1.htm(accessed April 13, 2011).
Lawton, Edward, "Underground Railroad."Digital History.. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/
documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=55 (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
Include as much of the following as can be determined:
(Author/editor of content)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(Ashlag)
(Lawton)
 
Reference List Elements:
Include as much of the following as can be determined:
Author/editor of content. "Title of Specific Web Page Used." Title or owner of the site. Month and day of publication, revision, or access. URL (accessed Date of access).
 
Reference List Examples:
Ashlag, Yehuda. Last modified 2010. "There is None Else Beside Him." Bnei Baruch Kabbalah Education & Research Institute.http://www.kabbalah.info/engkab/shamati_eng/shamati1.htm (accessed April 13, 2011).
Lawton, Edward. 2011. "Underground Railroad." Digital History.http://www.kabbalah.info/
engkab/shamati_eng/shamati1.htm (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
For further help citing Web pages, consult sections 17.7 - 17.7.1 and 19.7 - 19.7.1 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Blog Entry or Comment
Notes:
Blogs are generally cited only in notes and not in the bibliography. Cite blogs in parenthetical references or the text and in the reference list.
Note Elements:
Include as much of the following as can be determined:
Note number. Author of the comment, comment on "Name or Title of Original Entry," Title or Description of Blog (blog), comment posted on date of comment, URL (accessed Date of access).
 
Note Examples:
1. Connie Ury, comment on "Review Meeting," Brick and Click Libraries Symposium, comment posted on April 12, 2011, http://brickandclick.blogspot.com/2011/04/review-meeting.html (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
Include the elements listed in the notes example in the running text of the paper.
OR
(Author of the comment)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
See colors from the Notes elements and example:
In an April 12, 2011 comment, Connie Ury responded to Kathy Hart's April 8, 2011 "Review Meeting" post on the Brick and Click Libraries Symposium blog at http://www.blogger.com/
comment.g?blogID=5266778107652905278&postID=8323303305369112155. Ury noted that "This is always such an exciting time of the year when the symposium begins to take shape!"
 
Reference List Elements:
Include as much of the following as can be determined:
Title or Description of Blog. URL (accessed Date of access).
 
Reference List Examples:
Brick and Click Libraries Symposium. http://brickandclick.blogspot.com(accessed April 13, 2011).
 
For further help citing blogs, consult sections 17.7.2 and 19.7.2 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Electronic Mailing Lists
Notes:
Postings from electronic mailing lists are generally cited only in notes, in the running text of the paper, or in parenthetical references.
Note Elements:
Include as much of the following as can be determined:
Note number. Author of the comment to Name of Mailing List, Date of posting, number of posting if available, File Name of Posting (if provided), URL.
 
Note Examples:
Include as much of the following as can be determined:
1. Joyce Meldrem to , October 18, 2002, Brick and Click Symposium Call for Registration, http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/dig_ref/message/5837?var=1.
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
Include the elements listed in the notes example in the running text of the paper
OR
(Author, Date, posting or e-mail to Name of electronic mailing list)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
In an October 18, 2002 posting to the DIG REF listserv at http://finance.groups.yahoo.com
/group/dig_ref/message/5837?var=1
, Joyce Meldrem announced the Brick and Click Symposium Call for Registration.
OR
(Joyce Meldrem, October 18, 2002, posting to DIG REF: A Listserv to Explore the Growing Areas of Digital Reference Services)
 
For further help citing electronic mailing lists, consult sections 17.7.3 and 19.7.3 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Full Text Journal Articles from the Free Web
 
Note Elements:
Note number. Author(s) or Editor, "Title of article," Title of Periodical volume number, issue number (Date of publication): page number(s) if available or under descriptive heading, URL or DOI (accessed Date of access).
 
Note Examples:
1. Susan Booysen, "The Dualities of Contemporary Zimbabwean Politics: Constitutionalism Versus the Law of Power and the Land, 1999-2002," African Studies Quarterly 7, nos. 2 & 3 (2003): under "Electoral Contests in the Contex of Campaigns of Violence and Terror," http://web.africa.ufl.edu/asq/v7/v7i2a1.htm (accessed April 13, 2011).
1. Gregorio Gonzalez-Alcaide et al., "Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in Lisa," Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59, no. 1 (September 26, 2007): 152, doi:10.1002/asi.20720/pdf (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
Bibliography Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. "Title of article." Title of Periodical volume number, issue number (Date of publication): inclusive page numbers if available. URL or DOI (accessed date of access).
 
Bibliography Examples:
Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogollos, Carolina Navarro-Molina, Rafael Aleixandre-Benavent and Juan Carlos Valderrama-Zurian. "Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in Lisa." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59, no.1 (2007): 150-154. doi:10.1002/asi.20720/pdf (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
Text Elements:
(author date, page number(s) if available or descriptive heading)
 
Text Examples:
(Gonzalez-Alcaide 2007, 150-154)
 
Reference List Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. Year of publication. Title of article. Title of Periodical volume number, issue number (month of publication): page number(s) if available. URL or DOI (accesseddate of access).
 
Reference List Examples:
Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregoria, Lourdes Castello-Cogollos, Carolina Navarro-Molina, Rafael Alexiandre-Benavent, and Juan Carlos Valderrama-Zurian. 2007. "Library and information science research areas: Analysis of journal articles in Lisa." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59, no.1. (September 26): 150-154. doi:10.1002/asi.20720/pdf (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
For further help citing online journal articles, consult sections 17.2 - 17.2.7 and 19.2 - 19.2.8 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Full Text Magazine Articles from the Free Web
Notes:
Because magazine articles are often broken up and span many pages, do not cite pages numbers in bibliographies and references. List page numbers in notes and parenthetical references only when a specific quotation is used.
Cite magazines by date only, even if they have a volume and issue.
Notes Elements:
Note number. Author(s) or Editor, "Title of article," Title of Periodical, Date of publication, page number(s) if available (as in a pdf file) or under a descriptive heading if no page numbers only if a specific quotation is used, URL (date of access).
 
Notes Examples:
NOTE: This article is so short that there is no descriptive heading available.
1. Bill Dawson, "Sea Change for the E-Beat ... or the Doldrums?" Environment Writer, November 8, 2003, http://www.environmentwriter.org/resources/articles/1103_pr.htm (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
Bibliography Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. "Title of article." Title of Periodical, Date of publication. URL (accessed date of access).
 
Bibliography Examples:
NOTE: This article is so short that there is no descriptive heading available.
Dawson, Bill. "Sea Change for the E-Beat ... or the Doldrums?" Environment Writer, November 8, 2003. http://www.environmentwriter.org/resources/articles/1103_pr.htm (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(author date, page number(s) if available (as in a pdf file) or under a descriptive heading if no page numbers only if a specific quotation is used)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
NOTE: This article is so short that there is no descriptive heading available.
(Dawson 2003)
 
Reference List Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. Year of publication. "Title of article." Title of periodical, month and day of publication. URL (accessed date of access).
 
Reference List Examples:
Dawson, Bill. 2003. "Sea change for the e-beat ...or the doldrums?" Environment Writer, November 8. http://www.environmentwriter.org/resources/articles/1103_pr.htm (accessed April 13, 2011).
 
For further help citing online magazine articles, consult sections 17.3 and 19.3 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Full Text Newspaper Articles from the Free Web
NOTES:  
Newspaper article citations are usually listed only in notes and parenthetical references and not in bibliographies or reference lists.
If a newspaper title does not include the name of the city or if a city is not well known, list the city in italics and add the state,if needed for clarification, in parentheses. Examples: News Tribune (Tacoma, WA) or Springfield (MO) Journal. Newspaper article titles may be capitalized in either sentence or headline style.
Note Elements:
Note Number. Author(s), "Title of article," Title of Newspaper, date of publication, URL (accessed date of access).
 
Note Example:
1. Michael D. Shear, "Obama Urges Cuts and Taxes on the Rich," New York Times, April 13, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/ (accessed April 18, 2011).
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(Author(s) or Title of newspaper if author is named in text of paper date of publication)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
In an April 13, 2011 article entitled "Obama Urges Cuts and Taxes on the Rich," from the New York Timesnewspaper, Michael Shear reports. . .
Notes: The facts of publication are provided in either the parenthetical reference or the text because there is no reference list entry.
For further help citing newspaper articles, consult sections 17.4 - 17.4.2 and 19.4 - 19.4.2 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Electronic Books Downloaded from a Library, Library Database, or Bookseller
 
Note Elements:
Note number. Author(s)/Editor, Title of Book (City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication), page number(s), vendor, company or format in which the book is published (e.g., ebrary, Kindle edition; Microsoft Reader e-book; PDF e-book; Nook edition; etc.).
 
Note Examples:
1. Mantz Yorke, Retention and Student Success in Higher Education (Maidenhead: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press, 2004), 155, ebrary.
 
Bibliography Elements :
Author(s)/Editor. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication, vendor, company or format in which the book is published (e.g., ebrary, Kindle edition; Microsoft Reader e-book; PDF e-book; Nook edition; etc.).
 
Bibliography Examples:
Yorke, Mantz. Retention and Student Success in Higher Education. Maidenhead: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press, 2004. ebrary.
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(Author(s)/Editor Date of Publication, page number(s))
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(Yorke 2004, 155)
 
Reference List Elements:
Author(s)/Editor. Date of Publication. Title of book. City of Publication: Publisher. Vendor, company or format in which the book is published (e.g., ebrary, Kindle edition; Microsoft Reader e-book; PDF e-book; Nook edition; etc.).
 
Reference List Examples:
Yorke, Mantz. 2004. Retention and student success in higher education. Maidenhead: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press. ebrary.
 
For further help citing online books, consult sections 17.1.10 and 19.1.10 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Electronic Books Freely Available on the Web
Notes:
For an out of copyright book, freely available on the web, for which no place of publication is listed, there is no need to list n.p. (for no place).
When citing online books, which are not pdfs, list section headings or chapters rather than page numbers.
Always list either the URL or the DOI of an online book.
Note Elements:
Note number. Author(s)/Editor, Title of Book (City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication), page number(s) for pdf files or section/chapter heading, URL or DOI (accessed date of access).
Note Examples:
1. Lindley Smyth, Is the South Ready for Restoration? ([Philadelphia]: Union League of Philadelphia, [1866]), 15, http://sceti.library.upenn.edu/sceti/civilwar/pdf/17130_O_7_part01.pdf and http://sceti.library.upenn.edu/sceti/civilwar/pdf/17130_O_7_part02.pdf (accessed April 18, 2011).
2. Bill Hybels and Mark Mittelberg, Becoming a Contagious Christian. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994), 30, http://books.google.com/books?id=pOiJp-nClA4C&printsec
=frontcover&dq=becoming+a+contagious+christian&hl
=en&ei=mYmfTeOfAurL0QGb87yYBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum
=1&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAA#v =onepage&q&f=false (accessed April 18, 2011).
 
Bibliography Elements:
Author(s)/Editor. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. URL or DOI.
 
Bibliography Examples:
Hybels, Bill and Mark Mittelberg. Becoming a Contagious Christian.Grank Rapids, MI:Zondervan, 1994.http://books.google.com/books?id=pOiJp-=frontcover&dq+a+contagious+christian&hl =en&ei=mYmfTeOfAurL0QGb87yYBQ&sa =X&oi =book_result&ct=result&resnum
=1&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAA#v =onepage&q&f=false (accessed April 18, 2011).
Smyth, Lindley. Is the South Ready for Restoration? [Philadelphia]: Union League of Philadelphia, [1866]. http://sceti.library.upenn.edu/sceti/civilwar/pdf/17130_O_7_part01.pdf and http://sceti.library.upenn.edu/sceti/civilwar/pdf/17130_O_7_part02.pdf (accessed April 18, 2011).
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(Author(s)/Editor Date of Publication, page number(s) if available or under section/chapter heading)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(Smyth [1866], 15)
(Hybels and Mittelberg 1994, 30)
 
Reference List Elements:
Author(s)/Editor. Date of Publication. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher. URL or DOI (accessed date of access).
 
Reference List Examples:
Hybels, Bill and Mark Mittelberg. (1994). Becoming a contagious Christian. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. http://books.google.com/books?id=pOiJp-=becomingnClA4C&printsec=frontcover&dq+a+contagious+christian&hl =en&ei=mYmfTeOfAurL0QGb87yYBQ&sa =X&oi =book_result&ct
=result&resnum=1&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAA#v =onepage&q&f=false (accessed April 18, 2011).
Smyth, Lindley. Is the South ready for restoration? [Philadelphia]: Union League of Philadelphia, [1866]. http://sceti.library.upenn.edu/sceti/civilwar/pdf/17130_O_7_part01.pdf and http://sceti.library.upenn.edu/sceti/civilwar/pdf/17130_O_7_part02.pdf (accessed April 18, 2011).
 
For further help citing online books, consult sections 17.1.10 and 19.1.10 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Print Books
 
Note Elements:
Note number. Author(s)/Editor, Title of Book (City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication), page number(s).
 
Note Examples:
 1. Steven J. Diner, A Very Different Age: Americans of the Progressive Era (New York: Hill and Wang, 1998), 55-57.
 
Bibliography Elements:
Author(s)/Editor. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication.
 
Bibliography Examples:
Diner, Steven J. A Very Different Age: Americans of the Progressive Era. New York: Hill and Wang, 1998.
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(Author(s)/Editor Date of Publication, page number(s))
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(Diner 1998, 55-57)
 
Reference List Elements:
Author(s)/Editor. Date of Publication. Title of book. City of Publication: Publisher.
 
Reference List Examples:
Diner, Steven J. 1998. A very different age: Americans of the Progressive Era.  New York: Hill and Wang.
 
For further help citing online books, consult sections 17.1 - 17.1.10 and 19.1 - 19.1.10 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Print Journal Articles
 
Note Elements :
Note number. Author(s) or Editor, "Title of Article," Title of Periodical volume number, issue number (Date of publication)page number(s).
 
Note Examples:
1. Vanessa Gunther, “Indians and the Criminal Justice System in San Bernardino and San Diego Counties, 1850-1900," Journal of the West 39, no. 4 (Fall 2000): 28.
 
Bibliography Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. "Title of article." Title of Periodical volume number, issue number (Date of publication): inclusive page number(s).
 
Bibliography Examples:
Gunther, Vanessa. “Indians and the Criminal Justice System in San Bernardino and San Diego Counties, 1850-1900." Journal of the West 39, no. 4 (Fall 2000): 26-34.
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(author date, page(s))
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(Gunther 2000, 28)
 
Reference List Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. Year of publication. Title of article. Title of periodical volume number, issue number (month or season of publication): inclusinve page number(s).
 
Reference List Examples:
Gunther, Vanessa. 2000. Indians and the criminal justice system in San Bernardino and San Diego counties, 1850-1900," Journal of the West 39, no. 4 (Fall): 26-34.
 
For further help citing journal articles, consult sections 17.2 - 17.2.7 and 19.2 - 19.2.8 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Print Magazine Articles
Note:
Because magazine articles are often broken up and span many pages, do not cite pages numbers in bibliographies and references. List page numbers in notes and parenthetical references only when a specific quotation is used.
Cite magazines by date only, even if they have a volume and issue.
Note Elements:
Note number. Author(s) or Editor, "Title of Article," Title of Periodical, Date of publication, page number if a specific quotation is used.
 
Note Examples:
1. Nancy Gibbs, "Thou Shalt Be Removed," Time, November 11, 2003, 34.
 
Bibliography Elements:
Author(s) or Editor. "Title of article." Title of Periodical, Date of publication.
 
Bibliography Examples:
Gibbs, Nancy. "Thou Shalt Be Removed." Time, November 11, 2003.
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(author date, page if a specific quotation is used)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(Gibbs November 11, 2003, 34)
OR
Nancy Gibbs discussed the event in an article entitled "Thou Shalt be Removed" (Time, November 11, 2003, 34).
 
Reference List Elements:
Note: If all of the bibliographic information about the article is provided in the text, there is no need to include a reference list entry.
Author(s) or Editor. Year of publication. Title of article. Title of periodical, date of publication.
 
Reference List Examples:
Gibbs, Nancy. 2003. Thou shalt be removed. Time, November 11.
 
For further help citing magazine articles, consult sections 17.3 and 19.3 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Print Newspaper Articles
Notes:
Newspaper article citations are usually listed only in notes, running text, and parenthetical references and not in bibliographies or reference lists.
If a newspaper title does not include the name of the city or if a city is not well known, list the city in italics and add the state, if needed for clarification, in parentheses. Examples: News Tribune (Tacoma, WA) or Springfield (MO) Journal. Newspaper article titles may be capitalized in either sentence or headline style.

Do not include page numbers because many newspapers have several different editions.
Include the edition whenever that information is available.
Note Elements:
Note Number. Author(s), "Title of Article," Title of Newspaper, date of publication.
 
Note Examples:
 1. David Firestone, "Identity Restored to 100,000," New York Times, July 30, 2000.
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
Include all of these elements in the text or parenthetical citation:
Author(s) or editor(s), "Title of Article," Title of Newspaper, date of publication.
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
David Firestone describes the upswing in "Identity Restored to 100,000" .... (New York Times, July 30, 2000).
 
For further help citing newspaper articles, consult sections 17.4 - 17.4.2 and 19.4 - 19.4.2 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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No Author/Multiple Authors Examples
NO AUTHOR: Begin the citation with title.

TWO AUTHORS:
Notes: Connie Ury and Carolyn Johnson
Parenthetical Reference: Ury and Johnson
Bibliography & Reference List: Ury, Connie and Carolyn Johnson

THREE AUTHORS:
Notes: Lori Mardis, Pat Wyatt, and Frank Baudino
Parenthetical Reference: (Mardis, Wyatt, and Baudino)
Bibliography & Reference List: Mardis, Lori, Pat Wyatt, and Frank Baudino

FOUR or more authors
Notes: Sarah Park et al.,
Parenthetical Reference: (Park et al.)
Bibliography & Reference List:
Llist all authors.
Park, Sarah, Vicki Wainscott, Kathy Hart, and Kathy Howell.
For further help citing authors, consult sections 17.1 and 19.1 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Published or Broadcast Interview Unpublished Interview Interview/Personal Communication with Paper Author

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Published or Broadcast Interview
NOTES:
Interviews that have already been published or broadcast are treated like articles in periodicals or chapters in books.
Online interviews should include a URL.
Audiovisual interviews should indicate a medium.
The individual interviewed should be listed at the beginning of the citation (in the traditional author spot) if they are not named elsewhere in the citation.
Note Elements:
Interview Published in a Journal:
Note number. Name of person(s) interviewed (if this is not included in title of interview), "Title of Interview," interview by name of interviewer, Title of Journal, volume number, issue number (Date of publication): page number(s) listed for pdf files or under a descriptive heading if no page numbers, Persistent/stable URL or name of database if online (accessed date of access).
Interview Published in a Magazine or on a Web Site:
Note number. Name of person(s) interviewed (if this is not included in title of interview), "Title of Interview," interview by name of interviewer, Title of Magazine or Web Site, medium if audiovisual, Date of publication: page number(s) listed for pdf files or under a descriptive heading if no page numbers, Persistent/stable URL or name of database if online (accessed date of access).
Interview Published in a Book Chapter:
Note number. Name(s) of interviewer, "Title of Book Chapter," (includes interview with name of person interviewed) in Title of Book, editor or author, (City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication), page number(s). vendor, company or format in which the book is published (e.g., ebrary, Kindle edition; Microsoft Reader e-book; PDF e-book; Nook edition; etc.) or URL or DOI for books on the free web (accessed date of access if from a free web sites).
 
Note Examples:
Interview Published in a Journal:
1. Pieter Van Tol and Bob Kyle (partners and international law practitioners from the law firm Hogan Lovells), "Iran Sanctions (Q&A)(Interview)," interview by Jared Wade, Risk Management 57,7 (September 2010): 17, http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/infomark.do?sPage=16&searchType=
AdvancedSearchForm&type= search&prodId= EAIM&queryId=Locale%28en%2CUS
%2C%29%3AFQE%3D %28ti%2C15%29Iran +Sanctions+%3AAnd%3AFQE
%3D%28sp%2C2%2916%3AAnd%3AFQE%3D%28iu%2C1%297
%3AAnd%3AFQE%3D%28sn%2C9%290035-5593%3AAnd
%3AFQE%3D%28vo%2C2%2957%24&version =1.0&userGroupName
=nwmosu_owens&source=null (accessed April a8, 2011).
Interview Published in a Magazine or on a Web Site:
2. "'The Nurse from Helms Country' Rep. Renee Ellmers (R.-N.C.)," interview by John Gizzi, Human Events, March 21, 2011, under "Listen to the Nurses in Congress!", http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp?http://search.ebscohost.com
/login.aspx?direct=true&db=afh&AN=59635805&site=ehost-live (accessed April 18, 2011).
Interview Published in a Book Chapter:
3. D. A. Powell and Kevin Prufer, eds., "A Folio of Poems/Dunstan Thompson -- An Interview with Philip Trowner," in Dunstan Thompson: On the Life and Work of a Lost American Master (Warrensburg, MO: Pleiades Press, 2010), 150.
 
Bibliography Elements:
Interview Published in a Journal:
Name of person(s) interviewed (if this is not included in title of interview). "Title of interview." Interview by name of interviewer. Title of Periodical volume number, issue number (Date of publication): inclusive page numbers of article if available. Persistent/stable URL, DOI, or name of database (accessed date of access).
Interview Published in a Magazine or on a Web Page:
Name of person(s) interviewed (if this is not included in title of interview). "Title of Article." Interview by name of interviewer. Title of Periodical, Date of publication, inclusive page numbers of article if available. Persistent/stable URL or name of database if online (accessed date of access).
Interview Published in Book Chapter:
Name(s) of interviewer. "Title of Book Chapter." (Includes interview with name of person interviewed). In Title of Book, editor or author,page number(s). City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication, vendor, company or format in which the book is published (e.g., ebrary, Kindle edition; Microsoft Reader e-book; PDF e-book; Nook edition; etc.), URL, or DOI (accessed date of access if from a free web site).
 
Bibliography Examples:
Interview Published in a Journal:
Pieter Van Tol and Bob Kyle (partners and international law practitioners from the law firm Hogan Lovells). "Iran Sanctions (Q&A)(Interview)." Interview by Jared Wade. Risk Management 57, 7 (September 2010): 16-17. http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/infomark.do?sPage=16&searchType=
AdvancedSearchForm&type= search&prodId= EAIM&queryId=Locale%28en%2CUS
%2C%29%3AFQE%3D %28ti%2C15%29Iran +Sanctions+%3AAnd%3AFQE
%3D%28sp%2C2%2916%3AAnd%3AFQE%3D%28iu%2C1%297
%3AAnd%3AFQE%3D%28sn%2C9%290035-5593%3AAnd
%3AFQE%3D%28vo%2C2%2957%24&version =1.0&userGroupName
=nwmosu_owens&source=null (accessed April 18, 2011).
Interview Published in a Magazine or on a Web Site:
"'The Nurse from Helms Country' Rep. Renee Ellmers (R.-N.C.)." Interview by John Gizzi. Human Events, March 21, 2011, under "Listen to the Nurses in Congress!" http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp?http://search.ebscohost.com
/login.aspx?direct=true&db=afh&AN=59635805&site=ehost-live (accessed date of access).
Interview Published in a Book Chapter:
D. A. Powell and Kevin Prufer, eds. "A Folio of Poems/Dunstan Thompson -- An Interview with Philip Trowner." In Dunstan Thompson: On the Life and Work of a Lost American Master, 67-85. Warrensburg, MO: Pleiades Press, 2010.
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(Author Date, page number or under heading if no page numbers)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(Von Tol and Kyle September 2010, 17)
(Gizzi March 21, 2011, under "Listen to the Nurses in Congress!")
(Powell and Prufer 2010, 150)
 
Reference List Elements:
Interview Published in a Journal:
Name of person(s) interviewed (if this is not included in title of interview). Year of publication. "Title of interview." Interview by name of interviewer. Title of Periodical volume number (issue number): inclusive page numbers if available. Persistent/stable URL, DOI, or name of database (accessed date of access).
Interview Published in a Magazine or on a Web Page:
Name of person(s) interviewed (if this is not included in title of interview). Year of publication. "Title of Article." Interview by name of interviewer. Title of Periodical, Month and day of publication, inclusive page numbers of article if available. Persistent/stable URL or name of database if online (accessed date of access).
Interview Published in Book Chapter:
Name(s) of interviewer. Date of Publication. "Title of Book Chapter." (Includes interview with name of person interviewed). In Title of Book, editor or author,page number(s). City of Publication: Publisher. Vendor, company or format in which the book is published (e.g., ebrary, Kindle edition; Microsoft Reader e-book; PDF e-book; Nook edition; etc.), URL, or DOI (accessed date of access if from a free web site).
 
Reference List Examples:
Interview Published in a Journal:
Van Tol, Peter and Bob Kyle (partners and international law practitioners from the law firm Hogan Lovells). 2010. "Iran Sanctions (Q&A)(Interview)." Interview by Jared Wade. Risk Management 57 (7): 16-17. http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/infomark.do?sPage=16&searchType=
AdvancedSearchForm&type= search&prodId= EAIM&queryId=Locale%28en%2CUS
%2C%29%3AFQE%3D %28ti%2C15%29Iran +Sanctions+%3AAnd%3AFQE%
3D%28sp%2C2%2916%3AAnd%3AFQE%3D%28iu%2C1%297
%3AAnd%3AFQE%3D%28sn%2C9%290035-5593%3AAnd%
3AFQE%3D%28vo%2C2%2957%24&version =1.0&userGroupName
=nwmosu_owens&source=null (accessed April 18, 2011).
Interview Published in a Magazine or on a Web Site:
"'Nurse from Helms Country' Rep. Renee Ellmers (R.-N.C.)." 2011. Interview by John Gizzi. Human Events, March 21, 19. http://www.nwmissouri.edu/Library/IPChecking.asp
?http://search.ebscohost.com /login.aspx?direct=true&db=afh&AN=59635805&site=ehost-live (accessed April 18, 2011).
Interview Published in a Book Chapter:
Powell, D. A. and Kevin Prufer, eds. 2010. "A Folio of Poems/Dunstan Thompson -- An Interview with Philip Trowner." In Dunstan Thompson: On the Life and Work of a Lost American Master, 67-85. Warrensburg, MO: Pleiades Press.
 
For further help citing interviews and personal communications, consult sections 17.6.3 and 19.6.3 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Unpublished Interview
NOTES:
Unpublished interviews are usually cited only in notes or parenthetical references and the text. An unpublished interview may occasionally be cited in the Bibiliography or Reference List.
Note Elements:
Note number. Person or group interviewed (brief identifying information if appropriate), interview by name of interviewer, place and/or date of interview, title of interview if given or identifying information, format, and location of any transcripts, recordings, etc.
 
Note Examples:
1. Jean Jennings Bartik, interview by Dr. Tom Spencer and Dr. Jon Rickman, Maryville, MO, 2008, Northwest's: A Moment in History, videorecording, Northwest Missouri State University, Owens Library Archives.
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(Author Date)
OR

Name of interviewer interviewed Person interviewed, computer pioneer, in year of interview. A recording of this interview is available in the location at location.
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
Dr. Spencer and Dr. Rickman interviewed the computer pioneer and archived the recording in the Owens Library Archives at Northwest Missouri State University (Bartik 2008).
OR

Dr. Tom Spencer and Dr. Jon Rickman interviewed Jean Jennings Bartik, computer pioneer, in 2008. A recording of this interview is available in the Owens Library Archives at Northwest Missouri State University. In the interview, Bartik recalls .....
 
For further help citing interviews and personal communications, consult sections 14.218 - 14.223 and 15.48 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition.

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Interview/Personal Communication with Paper Author
NOTES:
Personal interviews by the author, conversations, face-to-face or telephone conversations, letters, and e-mail or text messages are usually cited only in notes or parenthetical references and the text.
These types of communications are rarely included in a Bibiliography or Reference List.
Note Elements:
Note number. Name of person who communicated with author of work, type of communication received by author, date of communication.
 
Note Examples:
 1. Patricia Wyatt (Reference Specialist at Northwest Missouri State University), interview by author, December 18, 2003.
 2. Tom Carneal (retired Northwest Missouri State University archivist), e-mail message to author, April 10, 2011.
 3. Dr. Leslie Galbreath (Director of Library and Academic Services at Northwest Missouri State University), memo to library staff, February 1, 2011.
 4. Frank Baudino, telephone conversation with author, November 3, 2010.
 5. Sarah Park (Information Librarian at Northwest Missouri State University), text message to author, January 20, 2011.
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
other elements are identified in the text(Name of person who communicated with author of workDate of communication)
OR

N
ame of person who communicated with author type of communication received by author on date of communication...
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
A reference specialist at Northwest Missouri State University identified several concerns for paraprofessionals working alongside MLS librarians at reference desks (Wyatt 2003)
OR

In an interview with the author, Patricia Wyatt, a reference speicalist at Northwest Missouri State University, described the level of expertise she has developed to provide reference service for college students (2008).
In an e-mail message dated April 10, 2011, the retired archivist from Northwest Missouri State University, Tom Carneal, discussed the opening of the University archives and the sources which funded the original collection.
On February 1, 2011, Dr. Leslie Galbreath, Director of Library and Academic Services at Northwest Missouri State University, distributed a memo to the departments she supervises directing individuals to combine absence reports for each week into one form.
On November 3, 2010, in a telephone conversation with the author, Frank Baudino asserted that ...
Sarah Park,an information librarian at Northwest Missouri State University, sent a text message to the author on January 20, 2011 explaining the procedures for moving web pages to the withdrawn file on the library server.
 
For further help citing interviews and personal communications, consult sections 17.6.3 and 19.6.3 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Lecture or Paper Presented at a Meeting or Conference
 
Note Elements:
Note number. Presenter(s), "Title of Lecture or Paper" (format presented at name of meeting or conference, City where presented, state where presented, Date of presentation).
 
Note Examples:
1. Connie Ury, Lori Mardis, and Gary Ury, "Get the Edge on the Evaluation of Sources" (presentation at Campus Technology 2006 Conference, Boston, MA, August 1, 2006).
 
Bibliography Elements:
Presenter(s)."Title of Lecture or Paper." Format presented at Name of meeting or conference, City where presented, state where presented, Date of presentation.
 
Bibliography Examples:
Ury, Connie, Lori Mardis, and Gary Ury. "Get the Edge on the Evaluation of Sources." Presentation at Campus Technology 2006 Conference, Boston, MA, August 1, 2006.
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(Presenter(s) Date of presentation)
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(Ury, Mardis, and Ury 2006)
 
Reference List Elements:
Presenter(s). Year of Presentation."Title of Lecture or Paper." Format presented at Name of meeting or conference, City where presented, state where presented,Month and day of presentation.
 
Reference List Examples:
Ury, Connie, Lori Mardis, and Gary Ury. 2006."Get the Edge on the Evaluation of Sources." Presentation at Campus Technology 2006 Conference, Boston, MA, August 1..
 
For further help citing online books, consult sections 17.6.2 and 19.6.2 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Chapter in a Book
 
Note Elements:
Note number. Chapter Author, "Title of Chapter," in Title of Book, ed. or eds. name(s) of editor(s) (City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication), page number(s).
 
Note Examples:
1. Lauren Rusk, "How Stevens Teaches Us to Read: 'Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird,'" in Teaching Wallace Stevens: Practical Essays, eds. by John N. Serio and B. J. Leggett (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1994), 28.
 
Bibliography Elements:
Chapter Author. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by name(s) of editor(s), inclusive page numbers of chapter. City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication.
 
Bibliography Examples:
Rusk, Lauren."How Stevens Teaches Us to Read: 'Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird.'" In Teaching Wallace Stevens: Practical Essays, edited by John N. Serio and B. J. Leggett, 26-40.Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1994.
 
Parenthetical Reference Elements:
(Author(s)/Editor Date of Publication, page number(s))
 
Parenthetical Reference Examples:
(Rusk 1994, 28)
 
Reference List Elements:
Chapter Author. Date of Publication. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by name(s) of editor(s), inclusive page numbers of chapter. City of Publication: Publisher.
 
Reference List Examples:
Rusk, Lauren.1994. "How Stevens teaches us to read: 'Thirteen ways of looking at a blackbird.'" In Teaching Wallace Stevens: Practical Essays, edited by John N. Serio and B. J. Leggett, 26-40. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
 
For further help citing books, consult sections 17.1.8 and 19.1.9 of Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed.

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Proceedings
A paper included in the published proceedings of a conference or meeting may be cited like a chapter in a book.

If a paper presented at meeting or a conference is published in a journal, it may be cited like an article in a journal.
Because proceedings are not covered in Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed., these recommendations are based upon section 14.226 of of the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition. This is the recommended resource to consult when the Turabian Manual doesn't cover a type of source.

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